Endnotes

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1. The term ‘‘Federal health care programs,’’ as defined in 42 U.S.C. 1320a– 7b(f), includes any plan or program that provides health benefits, whether directly, through insurance, or otherwise, which is funded directly, in whole or in part, by the United States government or any state health plan (e.g., Medicaid or a program receiving funds from block grants for social services or child health services). In this document, the term ‘‘federal health care program requirements’’ refers to the statutes, regulations and other rules governing Medicare, Medicaid, and all other federal health care programs.

2. See 66 FR 31246 (June 11, 2001), ‘‘Notice for Solicitation of Information and Recommendations for Developing a Compliance Program Guidance for the Pharmaceutical Industry.’’

3. See 67 FR 62057 (October 3, 2002), ‘‘Draft OIG Compliance Program Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers.’’

4. 42 U.S.C. 1320a–7b(b).

5. In addition, the compliance program elements and potential risk areas addressed in this compliance program guidance may also have application to manufacturers of other products that may be reimbursed by federal health care programs, such as medical devices and infant nutritional products.

6. In addition, pharmaceutical manufacturers should be mindful that many states have fraud and abuse statutes— including false claims, anti-kickback and other statutes—that are not addressed in this guidance.

7. The False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. 3729–

33) prohibits knowingly presenting (or causing to be presented) to the federal government a false or fraudulent claim for payment or approval. Additionally, it prohibits knowingly making or using (or causing to be made or used) a false record or statement to get a false or fraudulent claim paid or approved by the federal government or its agents, like a carrier, other claims processor, or state Medicaid program.

8. The 340B Program, contained as part of the Public Health Services Act and codified at 42 U.S.C. 256b, is administered by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA).

9. 42 U.S.C. 1396r–8. Average Manufacturer Price and Best Price are defined in the statute at 42 U.S.C. 1396r– 8(k)(1) and 1396r–8(c)(1), respectively. CMS has provided further guidance on these terms in the National Drug Rebate Agreement and in Medicaid Program Releases available through its Web site at http://www.hcfa.gov/ medicaid/drugs/drug.mpg.htm.

10. In this regard, pharmaceutical manufacturers should note that the exception for non-monetary compensation under the Stark law (42 U.S.C. 1395nn; 42 CFR 411.357(k)) is not a basis for protection under the anti-kickback statute.

11. CME programs with no industry sponsorship, financing, or affiliation should not raise anti-kickback concerns, although tuition payments by manufacturers (or their representatives) for persons in a position to influence referrals (e.g., physicians or medical students) may raise concerns.

12. It is also advisable to designate as a compliance officer an individual with prior experience or knowledge of compliance and operational issues relevant to pharmaceutical manufacturers.

13. The OIG believes it is generally not advisable for the compliance function to be subordinate to the pharmaceutical manufacturer’s general counsel, or comptroller or similar financial officer. Separation of the compliance function helps to ensure independent and objective legal reviews and financial analysis of the company’s compliance efforts and activities. By separating the compliance function from the key management positions of general counsel or chief financial officer (where the size and structure of the pharmaceutical manufacturer make this a feasible option), a system of checks and balances is established to more effectively achieve the goals of the compliance program.

14. For companies with multiple divisions or regional offices, the OIG encourages coordination with each company location through the use of a compliance officer located in corporate headquarters who is able to communicate with parallel compliance liaisons in each division or regional office, as appropriate.

15. As part of its commitment to compliance, a pharmaceutical manufacturer should carefully consider whether to hire or do business with individuals or entities that have been sanctioned by the OIG. The List of Excluded Individuals and Entities can be checked electronically and is accessible through the OIG’s Web site at: http:// oig.hhs.gov.

16. There are many approaches the compliance officer may enlist to maintain the vitality of the compliance program. Periodic on-site visits of regional operations, bulletins with compliance updates and reminders, distribution of audiotapes, videotapes, CD ROMs, or computer notifications about different risk areas, lectures at management and employee meetings, and circulation of recent articles or publications discussing fraud and abuse are some examples of approaches the compliance officer may employ.

17. The compliance committee benefits from having the perspectives of individuals with varying responsibilities and areas of knowledge in the organization, such as operations, finance, audit, human resources, legal, and sales and marketing, as well as employees and managers of key operating units. The compliance officer should be an integral member of the committee. All committee members should have the requisite seniority and comprehensive experience within their respective departments to recommend and implement any necessary changes to policies and procedures.

18. In some cases, employees sue their employers under the False Claims Act’s qui tam provisions after a failure or apparent failure by the company to take action when the employee brought a questionable, fraudulent, or abusive situation to the attention of senior corporate officials. Whistleblowers must be protected against retaliation, a concept embodied in the provisions of the False Claims Act. See 31 U.S.C. 3730(h).

19. Instances of noncompliance must be determined on a case-by-case basis. The existence or amount of a monetary loss to a federal health care program is not solely determinative of whether the conduct should be investigated and reported to governmental authorities. In fact, there may be instances where there is no readily identifiable monetary loss, but corrective actions are still necessary to protect the integrity of the health care program.

20. Appropriate federal and state authorities include the OIG, the Criminal and Civil Divisions of the Department of Justice, the U.S. Attorney in relevant districts, the Food and Drug Administration, the Federal Trade Commission, the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the other investigative arms for the agencies administering the affected federal or state health care programs, such as the state Medicaid Fraud Control Unit, the Defense Criminal Investigative Service, the Department of Veterans Affairs, HRSA, and the Office of Personnel Management (which administers the Federal Employee Health Benefits Program).

21. In contrast, to qualify for the ‘‘not less than double damages’’ provision of the False Claims Act, the provider must provide the report to the government within 30 days after the date when the provider first obtained the information. 31 U.S.C. 3729(a).

22. Some violations may be so serious that they warrant immediate notification to governmental authorities prior to, or simultaneous with, commencing an internal investigation. By way of example, the OIG believes a provider should report misconduct that: (1) Is a clear violation of administrative, civil, or criminal laws; (2) has a significant adverse effect on the quality of care provided to federal health care program beneficiaries; or (3) indicates evidence of a systemic failure to comply with applicable laws or an existing corporate integrity agreement, regardless of the financial impact on federal health care programs.

23. The OIG has published criteria setting forth those factors that the OIG takes into consideration in determining whether it is appropriate to exclude an individual or entity from program participation pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 1320a–7(b)(7) for violations of various fraud and abuse laws. See 62 FR 67392 (December 24, 1997).

[FR Doc. 03–10949 Filed 5–2–03; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4152–01–P

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